PCB Electrical Testing

Bittele Electronics performs 100% electrical testing on all bare PCBs produced at its facilities as per IPC-9252 specifications. We either use the Bed of Nails Fixture method or the Flying Probe method to perform the testing in our circuit board manufacturing process.

To test the PCBs, we require the NETLIST file. Although we create a reference netlist from the customer’s original Gerber data, we always prefer to receive the CAD file based on the netlist for comparison. Since a CAD-based netlist is generated before PCB routing, it provides another layer of checking (against the Gerber output). This allows us to catch any shorts/opens introduced in the event of of an error in the Gerber files.

The preferred netlist format is IPC-356 since all CAD software packages are capable of loading this format.


Our testing capabilities are listed in the following table:

Testing Capabilities
Minimum Continuity Resistance0.1 Ohms
Maximum Test Voltage1000 Volts
Maximum Isolated Resistance25 M Ohm - 2 G Ohm
Electrical Test Pitch (Fixture)0.020"
Electrical Test Pitch (Flying Probe)0.004"

Depending upon both the design and the cost, our testing methodolgy will either be:

  1. The Bed of Nails Fixture method, or
  2. The Flying Probe method

Sometimes customers are unclear about the difference between Fixture (Bed of Nails) vs. Flying probe testing, as well as the costs associated with them. The following example will clarify the difference between the two methods.

For this example, let’s assume there are 3,500 test points with 750 nets.


Electrical Test Pitch = 0.020"
Setup time: 30 minutes
Learn time: 0 minutes
Debug / check for missing pins: 10 minutes
Test time per board: 40 seconds
All points are tested simultaneously.
However, this process involves both setup time to create the fixture and additional costs associated with the cost of materials.


Electrical Test Pitch = 0.004"
Setup time: 0 minutes
Learn time: 20 minutes
Test time per board: 6 minutes
The points are tested one at a time.
There is no setup time because the machine learns the program as it operates.

If pitch is not a concern (depending on the design), our threshold is 15 manufacturing panels. So, we would select a testing method based on the following thresholds:
Flying Probe: less than 15 Manufacturing Panels
Test Fixture: greater than 15 Manufacturing Panels


Upon request, we supply the following reports free of charge:

  1. Micro Sections
  2. X-Section Reports
  3. Cross Section Reports
  4. Solderbility Report
  5. Cross-Section Report
  6. TDR Test Report (When Impedance testing is requested)
  7. Hipot Test (For all cores < 0.003")
  8. Peel Strength Report
  9. C of C
  10. RoHS Compliance Report
  11. U.L Certificate

Our Clients Include